Adelman, Clifford. (2006). The Toolbox Revisited. U.S. Department of Education.
The Toolbox Revisited is the follow-up to Adelman’s 1999 study using the national High School & Beyond dataset. Looking at the subsequent cohort of students, Adelman reaffirmed the findings of the original “Toolbox” for factors most strongly related to bachelor’s degree attainment. One key finding was the 20 credit threshold as the tipping point toward degree completion for students enrolled at four-year universities.
Allen, Drew. (2010). Dual Enrollment. A Comprehensive Literature Review & Bibliography. The City University of New York Office of Academic Affairs.
A detailed literature review conducted on behalf of the City University of New York. This review uses the available research around dual enrollment to create a common definition and assess available evidence for short-term out comes and outcomes in college – including college readiness and graduation. Also looks at dual enrollment policies at community colleges and high schools and institutional factors related to successful dual enrollment programs.
Karp, Melinda, et al. (2007). The Postsecondary Achievement of Participants in Dual Enrollment: An Analysis of Student Outcomes in Two States. Community College Research Center.
This evaluation looks at existing administrative data on students in Florida and the City University of New York to evaluate the impacts of participation in dual enrollment on high school and postsecondary outcomes. In Florida, for the 2000 and 2001 graduating cohorts, dual enrollment was associated with increased likelihood of graduating from high school, enrolling in college, enrolling in a four-year university, enrolling full time, persisting to a second semester and second year, having higher first-year college GPAs, and earning more credits. In New York, for students who graduated from New York vocational high schools and enrolled in the City University of New York in 2001 or 2002, participation in dual enrollment was associated with increased likelihood to complete a bachelor’s degree, higher first semester college GPAs, and earning more credits by 3 years of enrollment.